Studio Sangeet – open source and open mind

Most people learn techniques and perfect them.

Some people then take those techniques and look at what can be improved.

Sangeet falls into this camp.

He is now pretty well known for creating high quality prosthetic transfers, moulds made which contain the appliances and are used directly in their application.

As far as I can ascertain, this system was developed by Conor O’Sullivan and Rob Trenton and involves making silicone mould inserts which contain the appliances during application, speeding up the process in the chair and allowing multiple appliances to be run from the same sculpt.

Check out the podcast below stream or download it here or get it on Spotify, iTunes, Soundcloud, iHeartRadio…whatever podcatcher app you use we should be there. Just search for Battles with bits of Rubber!

Sangeet has taken this process and developed many techniques and methods to push it even further. The transfer technique involves a lot of moulding and remoulding, and is not for the faint of heart but the results can be fantastic.Check out his website  and his range of anatomivcally accurate injury appliance flat moulds.

I chatted with Sangeet in his home studio in North London, and we spent four hours talking about moulds, standing on the shoulders of giants, using old-school materials in new ways. We covered a number of topics, including:


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If you dig this, then share it! It would really help us out to grow the podcast.

– Stuart & Todd


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Chris Dombos & 3D Printing

3D printing is having an effect on the way things are made.

This episode talks about what those things are, how it benefits us all and how you can get involved.

Chris Dombos knows a thing or two about 3D printing, and he is also a massive FX nerd so we got on rather well. Having met him first at LA IMATS in Jan 2017 (I discovered he had some of the original Lost Boys moulds), it made sense to catch up when he came over to London recently. Of course, I figured bring the mic and make a podcast out of it. Listen below or subscribe for free in Spotify, iTunes, Apple podcasts, Soundcloud…whatever podcatcher you like to use.

We recorded in a cemetery in London, so there are background noises. The whole gamut of life – cars, sirens, passing people, kids, birds in the sky, aircraft, wind – it’s all there in a place of the dead. It’s all background, our audio is clear and we chatted about a number of great topics which matter to anyone who makes things. This includes:

  • There have been a number of auctions as big FX shops started scaling down! This means that the larger shops have all but disappeared but more smaller operations opening up.
  • Props Store London
  • Importance of design and the danger of generic, the process informing the look.
  • Occulus Medium:
  • Cost of CAD programs – the free and the fortunes.
  • Digital sculpting revealing an artists lack of anatomical understanding, and how an understanding of form is essential to good sculpture regardless of the medium – clay or pixels.
  • Costs of materials v digital process. It exists as a process, will only get better.
  • The increased incidence of joined up thinking, and how digital FX uses a team to create what would have been the job of one person, teams fitting together. For practical FX this wider collaboration is a new thing.

We also mention some great artists. These include:

Software and websites to help include:

Hope you enjoy this episode – It’s exciting and scary at the same time for me.

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– Stuart & Todd

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Eryn Krueger Mekash

This podcast was a lot of fun to do.

I met up with the Mekashes (Eryn and Mike) at their hotel as they were over for The Prosthetics Event here in the UK.

I was lucky enough to squeeze in a face to face interview and had a frankly wonderful time chatting with a couple of lovely people who also are amazing artists and FX nerds.

Her credits include TV shows Glee, Nip/Tuck & Movies such as Flags of our Fathers, Letters from Iwo Jima, My Sisters Keeper. As per her IMDb bio:

Eryn Krueger Mekash has 30 years of television and film industry experience as a makeup artist and is diversified in beauty, makeup effects and design. Her credits cover a wide range of productions. Eryn started her career in the special makeup effects field in Los Angeles.
Eryn has won 6 Emmys and 6 Artisan awards and well as 29 Emmy Nominations for outstanding makeup, prosthetic and non-prosthetic. She is the department head for FX’s anthology, American Horror Story (2011), and can still make a nice mold in a pinch.

Listen here, or on Apple Podcasts/iTunes. Soundcloud or whatever podcatcher you like to use. It’s a hefty one, almost 2 hours so get stuck in!

We are also now on Spotify, so check us out there too!

On Soundcloud

We talk about the great book Leading Ladies of Makeup Effects in which Eryn features, being a department head for FX heavy shows like American Horror Story, how much fun Halloween is at Rick Bakers place and recreating The Lost Boys thirty years on using pieces from the original moulds.

Todd was printing a head of himself to make ‘Chocolate Todds’ so that’s the sound you can hear in the background. Todd discusses the finishing up of his third edition to the well-known FX bible Special Makeup Effects for Stage And Screen! Hear all about the goodies in store there in the podcast.

Incidentally, the antler in question which frankly I think looks like something which needs batteries is this:

I think this looks suspect. Is it just me…?



The winner of the Steve Wang Sculpting Tool Set is Darren Pastor –

well done fella. These will be on their way to you soon!

As ever, get in touch on our Facebook page, comment here or email us

My sincerest thanks for the Mekashes for giving up their time so generously and for all the beer and pudding!

Until next time!

Stuart & Todd

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I’m still learning every day. I still make mistakes and I am still worried that every job I am about to start will go wrong. That feeling has never gone away and I suspect it never will. The trick is to get used to the sensation, understand that it isn’t abnormal and to get on with the job anyway.

There are many things which often get taught again and again at makeup school, but along the way there are also things I noticed which are vital and yet which never seem to get the same level of spotlight. In this blog post and podcast, Todd and I discuss 5 of the big ones which deserve looking at in some depth.

We gave this subject as a talk at IMATS LA 2017, but this is a recording done recently (Nov 2017) so we’re up to date and happy to hear your thoughts. Our email is

Listen or download the podcast below or from Apple Podcasts or your favourite podcast app.

If you prefer soundcloud:

1. It’s hard to be subtle.

Like a toddler learning to walk, you take massive, clumsy steps. Over time, you strengthen the muscles and acquire the motor skills to allow you to refine the walk, and gradually if all is well, you can walk without it being hilarious for other people to watch.

The same is true of making things. At first, a good proportion of your brain is overwhelmed with getting to grips with tools and materials, how they behave and what they feel like. It’s distracting at first, and you need to give yourself some time to become familiar with them and get past that in order to start using them right.

This is true for sculpting, where form is usually a secondary concern in the desperate sprint towards the fun of adding skin texture. It’s also the case for painting, where applying a small enough amount of a colour is a real skill.

Steps To Success:  It’s worth doing to big ugly messy stuff for fun, to get it out of your system, because then you can move past that desire for loud noise and move towards subtle and realistic stuff. I recommend starting out doing something small but well. Don’t spread yourself too thin over a huge makeup for a first attempt as it uses a lot of materials and if it goes wrong is an expensive way to find out something that can be established with a nose or a small cut.

I think creating small casualty effects is a good training ground for people starting out, as errors can be hidden with a bit of blood or bruising. As your confidence grows, you can start to make things cleaner and less bloody. The lessons of good edges and good colour matching can be learned with that safety net in place and then you can creep out into the light, hiding less behind the blood.

There is also an element of randomness in real skin, and allowing those real variations into the way you work will help create something that looks less contrived.

Things like flicking on washes, holding a brush from further back and  using a sponge or a second brush to move the colour around all help add a natural ‘jitter’. This measure of ‘controlled randomness’ helps the paint land on the surface in a way that better approximates the way colour is seen on real skin.

2. There Are Other Important Qualities To Recreating Skin Other Than Shape and Colour.

I remember trying to recreate The Lost Boys vampire brow with wax and then later with a latex appliance I had made as a clumsy 15 year old. I remember thinking that if I mixed up some paint that was the right colour for my skin that it would look like a piece of skin in the cup.

But of course, it doesn’t. Even if you mixed the exact perfect colour, it wouldn’t look like a patch of skin because it’s paint. It’s horizontal and in a cup….it’s wet, level and smooth because it’s paint and real skin has texture, is not one single colour and catches the light differently as the curves of anatomy take the ever changing light.


It took me a while to figure out that there are others things at play which you need to be aware of if it is your job to recreate skin.  With silicone for example, you can achieve effortless translucency in a way you just didn’t with foam. However, it’s really easy to just make something ‘translucent’ and hope that will do the work for you.

The trick is to make something the correct amount, so it is as opaque as the skin is. Richard Martin did a demo makeup and I remember looking at it and before any makeup had been painted on, you could see the opacity of it already made it work well.

As Richard himself pointed out that if it’s too translucent, the sculpted wrinkles etc. don’t cast shadows like real skin does. That means all those folds and pores that get sculpted in don’t do the job of making a skin surface look like a skin surface. They are there but you can’t see them as it’s too translucent.

Likewise you don’t want to be too opaque, but the point is to make the colour and the opacity right. The right colour but too translucent is no good.


Also the softness of the material needs to be right. Typically, silicone is made soft but you need to be able to match the softness of the skin that it is sitting on.  Long pointy ears don’t want to be flopping about like a baseball in a sock. Similarly a throat piece which can’t squish and stretch and keep up with the range of movement a neck is capable of then it too is going to look fake as it folds oddly and causes the real skin to bulge around it.

Matching the softness matters, and that may mean multiple appliances of differing softnesses rather than one big appliance.

With foam latex, high rise and softer foams move beautifully, but typically a soft foam is harder to handle – both getting it into a syringe, not trapping air bubbles and getting out of a mould….all these tasks are easier with a runnier, lower rise foam which is stiffer.  Usually, the softer and nicer something is once on, the more of a pain in the ass it is to make.

Cap Plastic

The cap plastic barriers in silicone can easily be too thick and undo the work of a nicely softened piece. Make the cap plastic as thin as you can get away with – thicker cap plastic makes it easier to handle for sure but can cause heavy wrinkling. Leaving cap plastic overnight to mature allows it to firm up, making thinner layers more durable.  This membrane we add is just how we do it right now, things will improve and we’ll get better encapsulants but this is where we are right now.


Often, when spraying cap plastic into moulds, the overriding concern is release – you just want to know that if nothing else, the appliance will just come out of the mould easily or at least undamaged. That often stems from an early attempt with too little release leading to pendulum response of overkill in release agent.

This often means the surface is shiny, and the resulting appliance may come out too shiny too. If possible, a dulling of the surface using icing sugar/powdered sugar is helpful as that means the surface is no longer hi-gloss and the piece coming out can be rinsed in water to dissolve the sugar that remains.

Alternatively, you can use an anti-shine to matte down the surface. Sometimes a colour can be a perfect match but the sheen of the surface is just different from that of the skin, and so it looks wrong. Matting it down will help and it also allows you to see the true colour of the piece, with less reflection. Matting down the surface prior to spraying the cap plastic means the surface of the piece could have vastly matter surface so you would be asking less of any antishine.

Powdering can help, but that usually works best on oily or sticky surfaces. The appliance may be shiny bit not actually sticky. I have before used a watered down Pros Aide mix stippled lightly over the piece and onto the skin to fade off and help segue the blend between real and fake.

This can then be powdered to assist in removing shine, and also helps transition between a cap plastic edge and real skin, where the sudden shift in material causes noticeable changes in the way the skin moves at that point.

3. Believe in primary colours

Mixing and matching skin tones is a skill that takes time to perfect, and colour theory is important. Know that if something is wrong that it probably needs to be redder, bluer or yellower (or a combination of those). Trusting that this is the problem is the thing. It just looks ‘wrong’ and you can’t necessarily see that a wash of blue is what will walk you out of that corner.

The trick often is to add just enough colour to stop it being wrong. For example, many silicone pigments or makeup colours are orange, and so a touch of blue is necessary to neutralise the orangeness. The trick is to add just enough to neutralise, but not actually make it turn blue. If that happens then you’ve added too much, but finding the subtle shift is the hard thing to do.

It’s kind of like making soup, where you might add some salt to enhance the flavour of something which was lacking in bite. If you add just enough salt or salty stock, it tastes more satisfying. If it actually tastes of salt, then you’ve added way too much. So it is with tweaking colours. Know that if you can see the skin colour of the person with your eyes then it exists within the visible spectrum, and therefore you can recreate it by selecting the correct combination of colours.

If your desktop printer can make a flesh tone with three primaries and black and white then so can you.  Like Santa, you have to believe that’s true for it to work.

Check out our posts on use of colour Colour Theory In Practice and 7 Tips For Painting Skin Tones.

4. 90% of what you do won’t get noticed (Hopefully)

But that stuff really needs to done right! Kind of like personal hygiene, it goes unnoticed largely until you stop doing it.  Making prosthetics requires a series of processes, each building on from the previous step, and each step is an opportunity to mess it up.

Making prosthetics is really a series of sidestepped land-mines, and when you get better at avoiding errors, it’s very satisfying. That all takes a lot of effort and practice, and working on a perfect lifecast, doing a nice sculpt, making a nice mould and applying the first perfect piece cast out of that wonderful mould will all be the result of a lot of effort prior to that point. None of which anyone but you will know or care about. It’s not usually the stuff that gets seen in DVD extras and it’s not a spectator sport so it won’t get the fanfare.

It all boils down to knowing what you need to be good at to do it well, and you need to enjoy those things enough to want to come back for another round. If you do enjoy them then you’ll keep doing it and you’ll get better and have fun on the journey.

Like a duck seeming to glide over a lake surface, the hidden webbed feet paddling away unseen below and out of sight. Good edges, natural form and texture, good colour match and movement from a correctly softened piece will at best appear totally natural. People love to spot an edge or an air bubble

A good example is a wound prosthetic, where the injury itself if done well will elicit a satisfying disgusted response, as the torn skin and the fatty tissue and dried blood cause you to react as a normal human would.

However, the fact that this big piece of rubber with edges, texture and fake hair is sitting there in plain sight and not getting noticed is by far the biggest compliment and mark of the success of your work. It’s cool because it looked real enough to not even be noticed. That’s the best part for you as the maker, and it took you most of your effort and attention – but that’s not the part that people look at and react to.

A lot of what makes good makeup look real is that it ‘looked like it happened’ rather than ‘it looks like a person created it’.  Knowing the materials and techniques well enough to get out of your own way, leave yourself behind and focus on what needs to be there in order to make it look right. That’s where you main efforts lie, and if you do that then nobody notices.

5. Failure: when things don’t go to plan, it’s easy to beat yourself up thinking you’re no good.

Everyone done this to some degree, and it’s an uncomfortable feeling. If you have the audacity to create something new, there is no guarantee it will work or even be any good. If it doesn’t work out, it’s amazing how many nay-saying voices you have accumulated in the wings ready to comment on your performance.

To do that well, you kind of need to open up and that can make you feel vulnerable. Criticism of self is common and hugely subjective based on your mood, your upbringing, how you saw others respond to problems. Creative and artistic people often wear their heart on their sleeve, and it’s necessary to be in contact with your feelings if you are going to be authentic and feel satisfaction in your work. You’re allowed to feel shitty and grieve for the imagined outcome that never happened. You’re also allowed to move on and try again. That’s the important part – to come back for another round.

Because creating things is a deeply personal activity sometimes, it feels like a unique and customised version of Hell crafted personally just for you. You need to know that this is how everyone feels, and that your unique way of beating yourself up is not so unique.

An example is a bladcap class, where we take head measurements when making a head pattern for making wigs. I’ll have a class of maybe 6 or 10 students, and naturally because people are not identical, someone will have the smallest head and someone will have the largest.

Almost every time, the person with the largest head circumference will take it upon themselves to feel bad about this newly acquired neuroses. This happens with such regularity, and it serves to show me that we are all a veneer away from being hurt.

Knowing that we can be hurt and recognising this is true means that we can prepare for it and create with some measure of recovery time built in.  Just like the crumbs you have after making a sandwich, the hangover after a night of partying etc…

I’ve heard with regularity that someone will claim to be a ‘perfectionist’ as if that alone excuses them from settling on where they are. That is often just an excuse to avoid owning your current state, the design/sculpt/paint job your current ability is able to provide.

Feel free to comment here or get in touch on our facebook page or email us at

Til next time

Stuart & Todd

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Rob Burns of Cutting Edge

Rob Burns makes great sculpting tools because he sculpts and knows what works.



It helps to know your tools, and in the podcast, he chats about how he started the company and how he paid his dues. We also chat with Mitch of Brick In The Yard again, and we talk about the proliferation of information in the hi-tech age and how having so much information on hand doesn’t necessarily mean that it makes it into the brain.

Listen to the podcast here or subscribe in iTunes or whichever podcast app you use:

Incidentally, this is what the tribble-like recorder looked like which we mention in the podcast:

Sculpting Tools

Tools are something I have an unreasonable desire for, and I have far too many already but I’ll be damned if that will stop me buying more. I have done a few posts on tools, manufacture tutorials and loop tool repair. This doesn’t mean I don’t buy tools as well – just because I know how to make a sandwich doesn’t mean I don’t go to Subway on occasion!

Check out a tutorial video from BITY with Robert demonstrating some cool sculpting techniques:

When I met with Rob at BITY, I had a play with the Steve Wang sculpting set, a signature set of tools designed in association with the master creature designer himself!

I liked them so much I bought a set there and then for myself, and also got another set for a giveaway on the podcast. See the competition details below to enter!

Our email is

Makeup Education

Todd is busy with the newest edition of his book, and I have had a few cool jobs and loads of teaching spots which led me to reflect on the differences between the job and the education side of things.  There are a few recurring issues I see partly because I think people think ‘makeup’ sounds like an easy option and partly because academic frameworks don’t necessarily make for a good approach to what is a vocational skill.

This being the case, we want to hear from anyone who is/was either a student or tutor in a makeup college/school/course and has a strong feeling either good or bad. What was your experience? What went well and what was pitiful? Did you find yourself surrounded with like-minded artistic souls or was it a difficult mixed group?

I’ve seen a lot of good thing and great tutors working hard to do right by their students, but sometimes any good they do is despite the system they find themselves in rather than because of it. Am I way off? Let me know by emailing

It’ll all be handled in confidence – I’m not interested in naming individual schools or people but I am interested in discussing the problem areas and what we can do to address them.

Check out Rob Burns and Cutting Edge Sculpture on Facebook, Instagram and the website.

Check out Prosthetics Magazine too, available as print or online subscription. This edition features a ton of amazing stuff, and we have part 2 of our latex tutorial – applying latex appliances.

Until next time

Stuart & Todd


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Dark Hour

Allen Hopps is the director of Dark Hour, a huge haunt attraction in Plano, Texas.

I wanted to take a tour and chat with Allen about what it takes to keep people scared and the business of running a haunt all year round. Podcast Time!!!

When people think about creating makeup effects, masks and prosthetics, its usually associated with film and TV shows. In the US, Halloween is pretty big and getting bigger every year.

The haunt industry is big business, and the work that goes into creating fresh scares show after show requires a coordinated effort utilising every trick in the book, from lo-tech jump scares from a well timed hidden performer to the latest sensor-tripped animatronics. This is all watched and monitored by an experienced crew and assisted by a system of hidden cameras, remotely tripped speakers, light effects, smoke and hydraulics.

Allen Hopps is an experienced and well respected director of Dark Hour, but he also regularly gets his hands dirty, making things for the show as well as running workshops where he will teach others the tricks to efficient working to deadlines and budgets.

I went for a tour of the huge show floor, and got to see behind the scenes where all the in-house stuff gets made – from sets, costumes, masks, prosthetics and props. The level of the thought and detail that goes into setting up a new show (there are several original new shows a year) is incredible. The team work year round updating and thinking up new ways to keep the screams coming. If you can make it to a show, I’d highly recommend it!

Allen Hopps at Dark Hour.

As the budgets and build times are often not anything like TV and film, a lot of creativity goes into making things from existing objects, repurposing and thinking way outside the box. The dollar store is a goldmine for creature making if you know what to look for.

A good eye for shapes and form can help create creatures from existing objects.

It was a real joy to talk with somebody who understands both the business of running a brick-and-mortar establishment which has to turn a profit to stay alive as well as how to make a mould that will do the job without breaking the bank.

All this and understanding the psychology  of what unsettles, and how to misdirect and create an atmosphere through the right combination of sight, sounds and smells. Yes, even smells. The simplest things can sometimes be the most effective, and this is often the case with many things.

There are a few absolute wisdom bombs in this podcast episode which many makers would do well to listen to.

  • If you’ve ever been guilty of having great ideas which seem to expand ever bigger, only to burst and fade away then this episode of the podcast is for you!
  • If you’ve been trapped in a cycle of indecision, dithering and not wanting to grasp the nettle of your creative masterpieces then this episode is for you.
  • If you think that movies are the ultimate end-game for creating creatures and masks and that if you can’t make that coveted position then what’s the point…? Then this episode is for you!


From thousands of doll moulds and doll parts (courtesy of diligent craigslist hunting) to stiltwalking, a child murdering character who makes his own choloroform, real tarantula skins on a pizza, mechanised werewolves, witches jumping down from the sky, rooms which shake, sparks, stairs which burst open and magic paint jobs which only work in the dark…..the toolbox of a haunt is a crazy mix and it has to be experienced to be believed.

Mazes and creating disorientation is a big part of managing the sense of unease, and making a safe environment which can allow the scares to take place is a big responsibility.

It really made an impression on me how much this first-hand experience with the event is so different from the experience of working in film and television.

Allen demonstrates the the oversized Krampus puppet


Horse skull mask made from sheet foam in a few hours.


The makeup room houses legions of horrors patiently awaiting performers.

Here’s that podcast again in Soundcloud if you prefer:

Till next time!

Stuart & Todd

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An image of a makeup I did recently had the rare honour of ‘going viral’ (sorta), and it led to an interesting series of developments.

This post is an attempt to process, quantify and clarify my findings.

I had an idea to do a steampunk-esque type of makeup as I had thus far never had the opportunity, and I had some notion of what I wanted to do. I liked the idea of a big jaw, a powerful looking character with a jaw which would serve as the central detail as well as provide some stark contrast.

I’ve seen a lot of steampunk-type makeups, and they largely consisted of gears serving no apparent purpose attached to the surface of the skin, coupled with playful use of scarves and big round tinted glasses. Asserting that the time period would allow for some extravagant war injuries, I decided the jaw could be a replacement, perhaps from a cannon blast or such.

Often, brass or iron effect pieces are used, and I decided that a suitable jaw replacement would be ceramic. Within the imagined storyline, as clay it would be easily shaped to the wearers defect, and as a makeup-design it’s bone-like colour would be appropriate enough yet have a stark contrast to the skin.

Not being a gifted artist when it comes to pencil renderings of imagined things, I sketched out a few scribbles until I found something which caught my eye.

This long faced fellow popped out of the page, and whispered something about viable believability, and that I should seriously consider him for the part.  Not having any other contenders, I heeded his virtual advice and began work on a clay sketch to see where it would go. Lets call him Max Mandible.

It looked for all the world like Paul Ewen (a regular associate, largely due to his full immersion and dedication to character) to me, so I set about prepping his headcast in the flat grey basetone which usually signals that creative battle is about to commence.

As is usual, the sculpt is to be finished as a design without care or heed to how it will be achieved. At this stage I want it to look right – the ‘how’ part we figure out afterwards. Once sculpted, the pieces are sliced at the appropriate points to make separation easier when this is floated off. In this case, the front of face and ears was a single piece, the jaw was another piece and the  forehead/back of head and neck was another.

For an in depth look at the ‘floating’ pieces and why separating out sculpts into smaller pieces may be necessary, check out this post with a downloadable workbook.

I wanted this to be lightweight and opted for foam latex, and once everything was finished onto their respective cores, the mould were made in fibreglass to allow swift baking and speeding up turnaround time.  For this, I turned to Rob Smith, blood and foam maestro of many years experience.

(Catch our 2-part podcast with Rob Smith if you haven’t already – part 1 here and part 2 here).

Rob quickly turned out a couple of beautiful sets of foams, light and soft yet strong (sounds like a toilet paper ad) which were easily seamed and painted. For this task, I had Jess Heath give me a hand. She basically seamed and painted the makeups at the trade shows that we applied them at (UMAE 2017 & London IMATS 2017). As you can see, foam doesn’t look like skin at all and needs to be painted correctly to supply the appearnace of translucency.

For hairpieces, Jutta Russell knotted me some lovely brows and a moustache in a very quick turnaround. Within a few days, they had spirited from her head block and into my hands via a swift postal service. I always enjoy the thrill of opening the cardboard box and peeling away the waxed paper veils to discover the magic inside. As per the Victorian ideal (and my own desire for waxed-curl perfection) the tonged and styled twirl remained handsomely in place, patiently awaiting a heroic top lip on which to take up residence.

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a splendid top lip in possession of a ceramic jaw, must be in want of a moustache.

Prepping pieces at a show table with people watching and asking questions can be a stress, but I thought part of what I wanted to show was how this stuff gets done, as this is the kind of thing that is hidden from view usually. At UMAE, Jess trimmed, filled and painted everything right there on the Saturday.

As you can see, Jess was busy and helped me apply these pieces whilst I was off and about doing stage spots and jumping back in every now and then. We finished off the makeup at UMAE and it went down a storm.

The neck was always an issue for me, as I didn’t want skin visible. I reasoned a bellows of leather, sealed around under the jawline would supply a decent range of movement and allow a better segue between the makeup and costume.

I had artist and all-round talent Violet Casselden make me a custom faux-leather neck piece. Real leather was a bit too firm, and as comfort and movement mattered, we decided this was the best option, and being easier to stitch meant there was plenty of scope for details and seams without too much extra time and work involved.

Very happy with the result, but as is always the case when you apply, the first time shows you the issues and the second time around is better. So, we decided the crowd at IMATS London would like to meet Max too.  So it was on the PS Composites stand that Max was once again born.

As I usually take pictures of progress, I myself am never in the photos so I am indebted to those who kindly take pics and send them to me. I am particularly grateful to Mauro Zenoniani, Horacio Martinez, Markus Glazner and Jeff Daniels.

Image courtesy of Mauro Zenoniani

So, job done and fun had by all. As is my way, I regularly updated followers with progress shots, often zipping out 10 updates a day so as to keep interested parties abreast of developments in almost real time.

That way I am able to demonstrate how some things are quickly achieved and others are more involved.

It was a month or so after that I first was alerted to the image being is someone else’s Instagram feed. Another account had used it, not asked nor had they credited me. I’m not amazed or stunned – the internet does this I realise. Then I got notifications from others, and others still.

Once I had mentioned this on my own account, others started appearing and I stopped counting after 40.  There seemed little point, as clearly it was doing the rounds and at a rate that any formal complaints procedure was unlikely to outwit.

A selection of some of the posts from various accounts.
They got more likes for my image than I did.

As is the way, those that ‘repurpose’ the image for their own ends have themselves also had it swiped from them, so much so that nobody seems to know where it came from or that it was even remotely unkind to do so.

It even came to something when the original hulk, Lou Ferrigno posted it on his Facebook page.

Now. Its important for me to make something very clear.

I didn’t write this because I was angry, upset or felt cheated. Well, maybe a bit.  This all started weeks ago, and in all fairness I did feel those things. On some occasions, I was credited but more often than not I wasn’t (I suspect it is now so far removed from the source material, the scope of investigation to track down the original owner was far too involved for the casual poacher)

I am in fact writing this because I chanced upon a makeup design which seems to have grabbed imagination but it takes on a life of it’s own, beyond it’s intended purpose.  The vast majority of accounts that have used my images have exposed them to many more people than my account has. The output of these accounts is almost exclusively made up of stolen images from others.

You can see in the accounts that they often use the same images over and over, all presumably to swell follower numbers. The idea is simply to use striking images, regardless of their origin, in an attempt to grab attention and followers. Usually the accounts are selling either a social media marketing course (great indication of their methods if in order to do so they need to steal other peoples work) or to accumulate followers so as to be able to charge for shout-outs, or to simply sell the account fully furnished with many eyeballs attached.

‘Go Viral’ on Instagram, I’ll show you how I used other peoples images so you too can use other peoples images.

‘DM for shoutout rates’. That’s right. the only reason you are following me is so that I can charge you for shouting out to others like you who apparently want to be successful but bringing nothing whatsoever to the table.

One ‘user’ of my image claims to love my work and not sell anything.
This from a ‘Social Media Marketing Manager’
whose profile consists of a bandana-masked face.

They are not artists using these images and claiming as their own.  I’ve had a lot of support from friends who have been angry on my behalf assuming this was the case, but it isn’t.  That would be a precarious and risky business as the creative world is pretty small, and when someone is paying for your ability, that is a pretty silly way to get work you can’t do.

No, this is all ‘online marketing’.

The reason this is interesting – and the reason for this post – is that it’s a very clear that in a desperate attempt to get as many eyeballs and followers as possible that they will basically poach all their images without conscience.

There is usually a call to action or response in the post such as ‘Real or fake?’ or ‘Who can explain this?’. This then causes a slew of responses as the many followers are compelled to weigh in with their sharp observations such as:

Or this considered masterpiece:

I like to respond with my own attempt at recovering some value from the thousands of likes their posting of my work is getting:

This has led to some direct messages essentially defending the reuse of an image:

I admit, I could make my account private. However, I do want people to see my work so does that mean in my own way I am just hungry for eyeballs? Perhaps, but the images I post are my own work and not there to sell crappy gadgets or a dubious marketing course.

In a response to something mentioned on Facebook about watermarking images, my reply was this:

I do now watermark my images as you’ll see but it’s another step on what was a very fluid process. I often instagrammed live progress shots but now I need the interruption idea second app to watermark the image first.

I’d like it if Instagram supplied a watermark capability as a filter as they have a number which are useless. There are regramming apps which automatically include the original profile so credit can be traced back easily.

What I object to is someone being called on their bullshit and then adopting a defensive moral highground where ‘just because I could have asked for credit’ makes it ok in their head. Messaging me as if they are the injured party.

Like taking things from a shop with money in your pockets claiming it isn’t shoplifting ‘if only you’d asked me to pay.’

Their accounts all seen to be using the same images over and over and they are mostly selling ‘marketing’ courses (whilst displaying a pretty poor show of their methods in the process) or else I suspect swelling follower numbers to sell the account on to whoever is happy to pay them.

I appreciate that watermarking images is sensible and the responsibility of the account user. So I have adopted this to my time cost.

We lock our front doors because without that we’d freely have intruders no doubt. However if you break in and take something you’re still a thief and unlikely to be released without charge simply because the lock was easy to pick.

Point is they are twats and it’s my right to say so.”

So, what is the conclusion? Essentially that there are two strands to the equation.

One strand is there exist people who are capable, creative individuals seeking to matter, be heard and influence others with their output. In a world increasingly seeking to automate with cheaper, more reliable alternatives than trained people (understandable from an economics point of view) there is an excessive of unfulfilled creativity. As a result there are people who just want to make things – be responsible for something – and have that matter.

The other strand is a group aware of people who want to make money by selling, to not be directly responsible for anything original but to just reconfigure existing ideas and content and endlessly recycle them for profit.

I remember in City Slickers, that Billy Crystals’ character has a moment where he recognises his frustrations of his job selling air time for radio commercials. He recalls his father was an upholsterer and had something tangible at the end of his working day to look at as proof of his time spent.

I think that lack of proof of influence on things, where individual output is swallowed up in a big machine – certainly if you are a team member contributing to something larger then it’s hard to quantify your input despite the accumulation of effort as producing bigger results overall. I suspect the less hands-on you are with something, the greater the scope for dissatisfaction.

There are plenty of people just looking to ride someone else’s wave, and bring nothing to the party. I suspect that’s a pretty unfulfilled life however. I urge you all to keep creating and keep coming with the new. It matters. That is what I have learned.


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Easy Wrinkles

Back in 2013, I did a presentation I called ‘Alternative sculpting techniques‘, and it was a manifestation of frankly the weird way I often see things.

A cry for help, some might say.

In it, I had cracked plaster, allowed moisture to creep into coffee granules and letting a bitten apple go mouldy, all to create shapes and textures which could be harvested for use wholesale or modified as sculpts to be incorporated into appliances. Check out a video of that presentation here.

Easy wrinkling technique video:

For an episode of Waking The Dead, we had to create water immersion wrinkling on hands and feet on a corpse who had been found in a reservoir. This basically meant four appliances, one for each hand and one for each foot, each with man wrinkles all over the surface.

The hands here applied, distressed and Waldo created additional sloughing skin with thin layers of cap plastic.

Makeup head Viv Riley and prosthetics designer Waldo Mason designed the effects, and had an excellent reputation for the good work they did on this BBC forensic crime drama.

Hands and feet and areas which often get less attention and are underestimated in the planning phase or quoting, as they usually are not the focus, and so the true horror of the extensive amount of edges that ten fingers and toes can create may not visit upon you until you start sculpting and realise how much work can be involved.

A simple outline with a tape measure ensures print-outs can be scaled correctly.

This being the case, and there being little time to create the effect, we worked on a quick method which would speed up the whole process. Firstly, we didn’t have a lifecast of the hands and feet so I had the makeup artist trace around the outline of a hand and a foot onto a piece of paper. I then had them take a photo of that

Then I set about mixing up some old silicone that I had with some thixotropic to make it into a paste, catalysed slow to avoid rushing and carefully depositing it into the sections divided by the natural creases at joints and in the palm etc.

I placed a sheet of cling-film over the top and using a coarse sponge, brushes and some smooth sculpting tools, set about shaping and texturing the masses to cause wrinkling to happen. The membrane of plastic meant that the silicone didn’t stick to anything, so the working is clean.

Indentations and dragging caused wrinkles to naturally occur, and dragging the surface causes tension, enabling very realistic effects to happen quickly.   You get a feel for how firm or gentle to be, and you can endlessly rework it until you arrive at the shapes you want.

Cling Film skin creates very coarse linear wrinkles

Alternatively, you can use cap plastic. By painting or airbrushing some layers of thinned cap plastic onto a sheet of silicone (I used the back of a large flat mould), you can create a thin, flexible skin which behaves in a different way as the thinner membrane stretches more readily, creating more subtle effects.

Cap Plastic acts as a much more flexible membrane creating softer effects.


Cap Plastic membrane can be made as thin as you dare to go!

Once happy, you can leave the plastic in place and set the boards aside to let the silicone cure, and then you can either make a quick mould on this in silicone to make pieces (a bit rough but it will work) or, as we did, make a quick mould and then put molten plastiline into that to essentially make the rough sculpt.

Molten plastiline poured in and scraped, left to cool and chill will be easy enough to peel out and place back onto a board to be reworked, tweaked and finalised if any clean-up is required.

This can then have a cutting edge and border strip added before moulding, and there you will have a relatively easy and quickly made set of pieces that don’t look too deliberate or crafted. The trick with most FX work is to create something (usually over extensive time periods) that looks natural, like ‘it happened’ rather than it has ‘been created’.

Introducing elements of controlled randomness, such as manipulating a membrane on a soft paste allows you to cause wrinkles to happen rather than directly have to sculpt each and every one. You then have the option to capture those shapes and make moulds, and it is a technique I like to use.

Leave me a comment if you can use this, or if you have any projects where this technique may be useful!


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All About…Cap Plastic

Cap plastic is big.

…and it’s not just for bald caps.

Cap plastic is so called as it was originally pretty much used only for making bald caps, so those with hair could temporarily be without it.

Over the last ten years or so, it’s used much more widely as an encapsulant or barrier in a mould so that when silicone gel appliances are cast into it, they come out of the mould with that cap plastic as a surface. This allows glue and makeup to remain attached to it – after all, silicone is at its best a mould material because almost nothing sticks to it!

Check out our podcast all about it here:

A plastic head form used for making bald caps.

Cap plastic is essentially a soft plastic melted down into a solvent, usually acetone as it is easily available and evaporates quickly. This material would be painted onto a head form (such as a plastic ‘redhead’ from Kryolan) in several layers and when dry, the resulting skin is powdered, peeled off and used.

Edges could then be blended using more acetone as required and the result was a decent custom fitted cap which could be painted like skin to create the illusion of a bald head.  Well-known brands include Glatzan by Kryolan and Baldies by Mouldlife.

Over the years as silicone began using cap plastic as a barrier surface, it made sense to try and find a less aggressive solvent if one were to be using it on parts of the body other than the hairline – say around the nose or eyes when appliances have edges finish around there. These are sensitive areas and previously not regularly presented with solvents to melt off plastic edges.

This led to alcohol based plastics, such as Super Baldies (Mouldlife) and Pro Plastic Plus (PS Composites). Now cap plastic barriers could be melted with the far less volatile alcohol solvents. Some care must be taken when using alcohol activated makeup on alcohol activated cap plastic, but despite what may seem like an obvious problem it works well.

The trick is to not move the cap plastic which may have been temporarily reactivated by the alcohol. Flicking and dabbing with brushes reduces contact, and reactivated cap plastic will simply evaporate off the solvents but the plastic will remain in place – bit this is probably best for a dedicated blog post about painting on cap plastics.


Lets be clear – you should not apply this stuff directly to skin. It should always be applied to a surface and allowed to completely dry before being used as a dry film!

Cap plastic typically comes in a thick concentrated liquid form, and ideally is thinned for use with the appropriate solvent (acetone or 99% alcohol accordingly) and can be painted on with a conventional brush or airbrushed.  Because Cap plastic is sold usually as a liquid – and the solvents are flammable – shipping overseas is especially tricky as it would be classed as hazardous for transportation purposes.

This can be an issue if you are having to get your cap plastic shipped overseas from its country of origin. For this reason, Neills Materials stock the plastic in its raw bead form, and this makes shipping it much easier.

You simply add your own locally sourced acetone and reconstitute the material yourself. The beads even come in the correct bottle size for the amount supplied so you won’t need to find a suitable container!

When using cap plastic, always ensure you have the relevant health and safety information, data sheets and make sure you understand it before using. Ensure you have sufficient ventilation/extraction/respirator to work safely.

Thinning & application

Cap plastic is usually a honey like consistency and too thick for most practical purposes. If applying by brush, it can be thinned (this is my way anyhow) about 2parts solvent to 1 part cap plastic. This gives a more fluid mixture to brush into a mould surface, and allow each layer to dry fully before applying another. The only issue with brushing in using a conventional brush is that it naturally deposits a thicker amount of liquid than an airbrush would. This is especially true in deep recesses. You may easily cause pools of cap plastic mixture which will take longer to evaporate.

BALDFX from Motion Picture FX.

This may be an issue for hard mould surfaces (plaster, stone, resin for example) as this increased evaporation time – even a few seconds longer – may cause the solvents present to etch into the mould surface.

This means upon removal of the appliance later you may find the cap plastic sticks partially (or totally) to the mould rather than you silicone gel.

I see many cries of ‘cap plastic stuck to moulds’ in forums and facebook groups and almost every time it is the result of a combination of brushed-in cap plastic and rigid mould material. Silicone moulds do not tend to have cap plastic stick so readily to them, but still be careful and try to avoid ‘pooling’ too much cap plastic.

How heavy handed you are is a factor in final thickness. Someone who dips a brush once and tries to spread that load all over a mould surface will deplete the brush quickly and lay little cap plastic. Another person may dip the brush and wipe one stroke before re-dipping, wiping back and forth progressively and thus using far more cap plastic. Both believe they have applied a single layer but to different effect.


If applying using an airbrush, you will need to thin it with more solvent for it to actually get through the nozzle – usually around 4 to 6 parts solvent to 1 part plastic. There are many variables that affect exact amounts, and there isn’t one definitive way of doing it. I personally prefer about 7 parts solvent to 1 part cap plastic and about three to four layers.

See cap plastic being sprayed into moulds in these videos: flat moulds sprayed and brushed here, and also fibreglass moulds being sprayed here – skip to 12:40 to get to the cap plastic stuff.

However, your needle size, spraying pressure, distance from the mould surface and how slowly progress across the mould surface will all have an effect on the final cap plastic thickness.  Spray beyond the edge of the mould so you can be sure the thickness is consistent everywhere and you can check at intervals around the edge with a pin. Obviously check on the flashing, outside of the actual appliance itself – you don’t want to damage this precious membrane!  Lift the cap plastic with a pin and check for holes. As soon as you have several areas checked and noted as ok, then stop spraying!

The idea is to have as thin a workable surface as possible. As soon as you have that, leave it for an hour before filling with silicone. Cap plastic toughens with age, and if you lift the cap plastic as soon a s it is sprayed, it may feel very soft. If you mistake this for being too thin, then you may add many more layers and the following day you will come back to a piece with edges as tough as wellington boots. Check for holes. As soon as you have a surface without a web of holes, stop spraying and leave it to mature.

Accept you will likely need to run a few appliances before you get your thickness perfect. Keep track of your solvent ratios, mark the bottles and ensure the solvent can’t evaporate when you are not using the cap plastic! Keep note of your layers, and compressor pressure etc. You will get a feel for how you work, and then you adjust accordingly.

I personally would rather apply more thin layers and be confident that I have not missed anywhere than try to do it all in fewer passes only to find a section was missed, and only is this revealed after the piece is demoulded (taken out) and the process must then be repeated.


One phenomena you need to be aware of when applying by brush is how, as a liquid, the cap plastic will settle into thicker pools in the recesses and therefore is thinnest on the high points (see illustration).

This means these high areas will have almost no cap plastic and consequently, the finished appliance may have holes at these points or tear more easily. Bear this in mind and perhaps apply another couple of layers carefully just on these areas to help reduce any issues.

Conversely, when airbrushing (see illustration below), you tend to get an even finish as it evaporates almost instantly, allowing regular even thickness over an undulating surface, high points and all.

Sometimes you will accumulate ‘cobwebs’ of cap plastic.  This can be caused by too high a pressure or insufficient amounts of solvent. You may find warmer temperatures increase the likelihood of this. Tapping them away with a solution of your thinned cap plastic should melt them away, although minor cobwebs are not an issue for the appliance.

Cobwebs can be melted away using a solution of cap plastic. This will replace any bare spots left by melting away.

Getting used to the material is key. If in doubt, do some tests runs and get familiar with YOUR kit, how heavy handed YOU are and how YOUR compressor/brush/nerves handle it. That way, by paying close attention to the results, you can more sensibly amend your approach to correct the issues in a logical manner. Trust us – we know exactly how it feels!

‘Til next time. As ever, comments below or on our facebook page are always gratefully received! If we helped you with something, we love to know. If there is something you’d like to know that wasn’t mentioned, again…let us know!

– Stuart & Todd

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Sometimes you break stuff.
Knowing how to fix it is handy!


I was an utter arse recently when I tried to save a few minutes work by just using plaster when casting out a head.

Normally, it wouldn’t be an issue as good plaster is strong, and I have almost never had a cast break through neglecting to reinforce it, especially as this was just a master to clean up and remould. It was never intended for punishment.

Well, I trimmed the shoulders off and got impatient, and after cutting part way through the shoulder, decided to whack the crap out of it with a mallet in the hope such percussive persuasion would cause said section to leap helpfully off the remaining cast without whine or worry.

This did not happen.

Instead, the hollow shoulders suddenly broke and the head tipped back, broken clean through across a fold in the neck where presumably the plaster was thinnest.

I fortunately caught the head before gravity played its full measure of trickery, but even so, it meant my beautiful lifecast was now in three pieces instead of the convenient single article. Utter fuck.

Still, what’s learned is profit. Here is what I did to repair it, and rather jolly it was too.

Step 1: Get Over It
Invent your swearwords, mourn the loss of the imagined perfection and soothe the strain with a cup of tea/beer/shot of single/malt/all of these. Point is, if you’re still fuming, you aren’t likely to improve the situation with uninformed haste. Doing the first thing you think of very quickly and whilst swearing isn’t likely to help you, so make your peace with it.

Step 2: Check The Fit
The pieces were quite complete and readily fitted back together. Check the joining faces are clear of debris or loose crap.

Step 3: Stick It Back Together
I used PVA glue (the cheap white water based glue used in sealing brickwork for plastering) to glue the shoulder pieces back together. I left this for an hour or so and then I used plaster bandage to reinforce the plaster from inside the shoulders.

You could use superglue, that would work fine too but I had the other head to work on so I wasn’t in a hurry. The trick with repairs like this is to accept the time penalty, and not to hasten things too much or else incur further error and damage.  I leave the glued parts alone for an hour and then carefully back it up with some plaster bandage to add some mechanical strength.

Plaster bandage is used to carefully supply support whilst the glue dries.

Popping the head upside down into an empty plastic paint kettle (a bucket filled with sand or gravel is an excellent device for holding peculiar objects at convenient angles – see this video & post on supporting a tongue mould I did a while back) I apply glue to the broken edge of the neck.

Apply a generous amount, and seat the shoulders in place, ensuring that it sits at an angle at which it can remain – don’t need the shoulders falling off when your back is turned.

With sufficient glue applied, you will no doubt get excess squidging out as the plaster faces meet. If so, wipe this clean with a damp cloth or tissue (I keep a pack of cheap wet wipes on hand by the bench) before it dries as this will be a pain to do so later.

Ensure to wipe clean any beads of excess glue which creeps out of the join before it hardens.

Step 4: Reinforce the Billy-O Out Of It
Whilst the head is still inverted,  some scrim fabric and a runny mix of plaster is used to reinforce the inside. The runnier plaster is so that it grabs a hold of the existing plaster better. Were I to add a thicker mix of plaster then it will have its reduced water content sucked out by the drier and absorbent making it a weaker join.

After an hour or so,  the whole thing is sound and secure. It doesn’t look especially pretty but now nothing will drift or loosen. I can now mount this to a board and make good.

Once the head is leveled and attached to the board with screws,  a batch of plaster is worked into the open shoulder ends and any cracks, bubbles or deficiencies which need filling or leveling out.

I like to scrape it back just as it sets to smooth it and rinse water as it hardens to achieve an alabaster smooth finish.  By using a weaker plaster to fill the remaining holes and cracks, I am less likely to inadvertently damage the cast head itself with the scraping and smoothing tools.

The finished repair, ready to master mould.

For a more extensive example of fixing plaster, check out these three previous blog posts covering the fixing of a new face and how to mount the shoulders to a baseboard for secure fixture:

Right, I’m off back to the workshop to finish these moulds!



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